Scientist and expert advocate in this space Dom D’Agastino articulates just how and why ketones affect the brain.
(The real horse power behind ketosis is its brain-based impacts.)
Though, this shouldn’t come as a surprise; the diet has been used as a last-chance therapy for epilepsy for the better part of 100 years.
Check out the Show notes: http://highintensityhealth.com/205
Watch the interview: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XZSf5OC3aOQ&list=PL0ovt_TbvVmYvrI48Tzs1vhe4o2eUn8qU&index=1
He explains how these metabolites that are made by our liver have far-reaching effects on brain function and neurotransmitter metabolism.
Dom also discusses how ketones affect the immune system, cancer-cell metabolism and even heart health.
It’s a fascinating and very detailed discussion. I think you’ll get a lot out of it.
01:38 One of Dr. D’Agostino’s early experiments lead to researchers developing and using ketones as a mitigation countermeasure to prevent oxygen toxicity seizures.
03:17 Nutritional ketosis has a stabilizing effect upon the brain.
03:54 The ketogenic diet and exogenous ketones impact many different mechanisms in synergy. Drugs impact one mechanism.
04:31 The cells of the hippocampus are selectively vulnerable to oxidative stress and energy deprivation, thus make effective study samples.
05:30 Acetyl acetate is neuroprotective, so the ketone esters developed by his lab are high in both acetyl acetate and beta hydroxybutyrate.
08:07 Clinically, the state of nutritional ketosis is defined as an elevation of blood beta hydroxybutyrate 0.5 and above or urine ketones, which measure acetyl acetate, is 15 mg/deciliter or above.
09:54 The more we subject our livers to oxidizing fats for fuel, the greater capacity we will have over time, unless we have a fatty oxidation disorder.
13:34 We may have the ability to robustly increase our capacity to make ketones, as well as break down and use ketones.
15:38 Ketone supplements, especially the ketone esters, have the capacity to be toxic if they are consumed in large quantities.
16:35 Dr. D’Agostino has tested 20 different types of ketones and ketone formulations.
17:22 Ketones have been found to be neuroprotective against high levels of oxygen, reactive oxygen species, glutamate and excitotoxicity.
21:18 The most potent anti-seizure effects found in animal models are from the elevation of both beta hydroxybutyrate and acetyl acetate.
23:52 Independent of their metabolic properties, ketone molecules have potent signaling properties.
29:38 Acetyl acetate does not have an enantiomer. Beta hydroxybutyrate does.
31:36 Exogenous ketones, when consumed as a bolus, can lower blood glucose levels via what appears to be a mechanism that is independent of insulin.
41:40 Ketones mitigate oxidative stress by enhancing mitochondrial energy production and reducing the leaking of electrons through the electron transport chain to molecular oxygen.
44:40 The activity of the enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase, is increased when you are in a state of nutritional ketosis and with exogenous ketones.
46:04 Exogenous ketones work through the adenosine A1 receptor. Adenosine is neuroprotective, has many different effects upon the heart and is a potent vasodilator.
46:40 Being in a state of moderate ketosis can augment brain blood flow by up to 30%.
47:18 Your brain stores more creatine when you are in ketosis. Creatine is neuroprotective, even against brain injury.
51:41 Ketosis brings the brain back to a state of balance: energetic balance, redox balance, and probably neurotransmitter balance. In ketosis, the energetic state of a cell can be preserved with less oxygen.
57:39 The ketogenic diet is being found to be effective therapy in a number of diseases..
01:03:32 Being in a state of ketosis, combined with a state of mild calorie restriction, quiets the brain and reduces anxiety behavior (in rodent models).. Parents report that placing their child on a ketogenic style diet improves behavior.
01:06:35 Exogenous ketones can attenuate some of the rebound effect from periodic hypoglycemia, which would activate your sympathetic nervous system.
01:11:26 A ketogenic diet approach can be used to maintain and build muscle.
01:15:10 Your mitochondrial function will be better preserved if you live in a state of or go in and out of a state nutritional ketosis and do intermittent fasting a few times a week.
01:17:02 Exercise is a huge hammer, as big as nutrition, in slowing aging.
01:22:11 The ketogenic diet works for weight loss, in part, through an appetite suppressing effect. Weight loss due to ketone supplementation is from the ketone effects upon brain energy metabolism.
01:31:45 Dr. D’Agostino’s single favorite exercise is the chin-up.
01:32:20 Dr. D’Agostino’s desert island supplement is coffee, which is full of polyphenols.